BDDs are a very active research area. Some interesting, recent developments include:

- ADDs (algebraic decision diagrams) [Bahar
*et al.*,*ICCAD93*]

- asynchronous circuit synthesis [Lin
*et al.*,*ICCAD94*]

- BCP (binate covering problem) solver [Jeong
*et al.*,*ICCAD92*]

- BDDs for implicit set representation in combinatorial problems [Minato,
*DAC93*] and applications to polynomial algebra [Minato,*IWLS95*]

- efficiency improvements through dynamic variable reordering ([Rudell,
*ICCAD93*], [Panda*et al.*,*ICCAD94*]) and breadth-first manipulations [Ashar*et al.*,*ICCAD94*]

- exact and approximate FSM traversal techniques ([Coudert
*et al.*,*IFIP Workshop on Applied Formal Methods*, 1989, and*ICCD90*], [Touati*et al.*,*ICCAD90*], [Cho*et al.*,*DAC93*])

- formal verification of arithmetic circuits ([Bryant
*et al.*,*DAC95*][Kimura,*DAC95*])

- ILP solver based on edge-valued BDDs [Pedram
*et al.*,*ICCAD93*]

- implicit prime generation and two-level minimization ([Coudert
*et al.*,*DAC92*], [Coudert*et al.*,*DAC93*], [Coudert,*Integration*, Oct. 1994]),

- matrix representation using MTBDDs [Clarke
*et al.*,*IWLS93*]

- MDDs (multi-valued decision diagrams) [T. Kam's
*M.S. Thesis*, UC Berkeley, 1990]

- OKFDDs (ordered Kronecker functional decision diagrams) [Drechsler
*et al.*,*DAC94*]

- parallel algorithm for BDD construction [Kimura
*et al.*,*ICCD90*]

- symbolic synthesis techniques [B. Lin's
*Ph.D. Thesis*, UC Berkeley, 1991]

The above lists are *by no means* complete!

- [Aker78]
- S. B. Akers, "Binary Decision Diagrams",
*IEEE Transactions on Computers*, vol. c-27, no. 6, June 1978. - [Brya86]
- R.E. Bryant, "Graph-Based Algorithms for Boolean Function Manipulation",
*IEEE Transactions on Computers*, vol. c-35, no.8, Aug. 1986. - [BrRB90]
- K.S. Brace, R.L. Rudell, and R.E. Bryant, "Efficient Implementation of a BDD package",
*Proc. 27th Design Automation Conference,*1990. - [Brya92]
- R. E. Bryant, "Symbolic Boolean Manipulation with Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams",
*ACM Computing Surveys*, vol.24, no.3, Sep. 1992.